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Created Date Wednesday, 15 April 2015
Modified Date Tuesday, 03 July 2018
Filesize 72 Kilobytes

Analytics for Zachman’s Enterprise Ontology – Solving Executive Management Problems

Some Background on the Zachman Framework

By: Gil Laware & Frank Kowalkowski

John A. Zachman’s, the “Framework for Enterprise Architecture: the Enterprise Ontology” provides an excellent basis for understanding and critically examining the enterprise. The “Enterprise Perspective” is the actual execution of the enterprise’s business model. It is critical for success of its strategic direction which we stated in last month’s article. The value of the framework is it keeps items simple to categorize, understand, and relate in assessing change, risk, complexity, and alternative views needed to evaluate opportunities and problem areas in the business.

To read more, register to this web site to download the article.

Created Date Friday, 17 April 2015
Modified Date Tuesday, 03 July 2018
Filesize 689 Kilobytes

Architecture and the Strategic Management of IT

Strategic Management of IT and Architecture

By: Gil Laware & Frank Kowalkowski

IT executives and managers are responsible for supplying digital services to the entire organization based on need. Understanding that need today requires a grasp of the role that architecture is playing in representing the structure of the organization. In order to provide the right systems at the right time managers in business and IT need to define the requirements which in turn are based on the structure of the business which itself is based on the strategic direction which again is based on what is going on outside the organization, its context. That is a pretty difficult task for IT management. The emerging discipline of architecture is intended to help deal with this understanding and make things easier.

The post-World War II era has seen the advent of many types of business models and methods of quantitative analysis. It has also seen the growth of organizations both organically and via merger or acquisition. In addition recent economic condition has seen consolidations, divestitures, disposals and spinoffs.

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Created Date Tuesday, 16 February 2016
Modified Date Tuesday, 03 July 2018
Filesize 958 Kilobytes

End to End Architecture (E2EA)

Business Value from Business Architecture

By Frank Kowalkowski, President Knowledge Consultants, Inc.

Establishing Architecture Value
How can you assure that management direction based on the external landscape and ecosystem leads to a satisfying conclusion in terms of execution? Will the organization achieve the desired improvement in performance? Will you get more than just a pile of documentation from analysts with no conclusions or recommendations? How do use the current emerging discipline of business architecture to help the situation? And, most of all, how do you assure that value comes out of the architecture process?

Over the last 5 decades there have been several attempts to describe analyzing an enterprise by separating the effort into various categories, layers, levels and focus. One of the most popular has been the Strategic, Tactical and Operational view (the STO view) as a means of layering the analysis by scope and time. The external view of the landscape around the enterprise was left to the competitive analysis part of marketing and strategic planning.

To read more, register to this web site to download the article.

Created Date Thursday, 01 August 2013
Modified Date Tuesday, 03 July 2018
Filesize 70 Kilobytes

The Skeptical Architect - Architecture & Business Models - A Marriage in Heaven

The Skeptical Architect

By: Gil Laware & Frank Kowalkowski

Recent strategic thinking links strategy focusing on competitors, markets and customers served with business models that represent the execution of the business to serve the markets1. Newth defines the business model as an “internal system that is made up of components, linkages between components, and dynamics.”2 Both perspectives can be represented by architectures, linked together and the impact of changes, structural options and ranking of importance of alternatives assessed using phrase analytics on the architectures.

Earlier this year we wrote about the various types of architectures and in May’s article focused on business change and risk. The focus was on the business analyst’s use of an architecturebased framework to mitigate risk by assessing impact of risk as it cascades through the various architectures. By making explicit the risks associated with the strategic, tactical, and operational alternatives, it provides executives with an enhanced perspective of how architecture can come to the rescue in assessing organizational risk. The key issue is to show how architecture represents

To read more, register to this web site to download the article.

Created Date Monday, 01 August 2011
Modified Date Tuesday, 03 July 2018
Filesize 192 Kilobytes

The Skeptical Architect - Architecture, A Multiplicity of Perspectives?

The Skeptical Architect

By: Gil Laware & Frank Kowalkowski

We think that there are multiple of architectural perspectives. In our May segment, we made the assertion that business and IT architecture are not the same but that IT architecture is contained in the overall architecture which we called ‘Organization Architecture’. This introduced some definitional distinctions we have seen about 'architecture' today. This time we would like to go a bit further and assert that an organization consists of a collection of architectures that are interrelated. The need to have one all encompassing and current architecture may not be a reachable goal. The examples brought up below give an indication why.

To read more, register to this web site to download the article.

Created Date Sunday, 01 May 2011
Modified Date Tuesday, 03 July 2018
Filesize 121 Kilobytes

The Skeptical Architect - Architecture, Wherefore Art Thou?

The Skeptical Architect

By: Gil Laware & Frank Kowalkowski

There is a profusion of terms that are used to describe ‘architecture’ today. The terms depend on whether you are on the business side or the IT side of the fence. It is time to understand these terms better and perhaps resolve how they fit together and relate to each other.

The architecture idea:
‘Architecture’ as applied to organizations is replete with confusion and contradiction. Start with the basic terms used….architecture… should we say business architecture (the business focus) or enterprise architecture (the IT focus)? Both terms (and a few others) have proponents and detractors, definitions, interpretations and the ‘correct’ viewpoint. If the ‘architecture frameworks’ are examined (e.g. TOGAF, DODAF etc.) we see that they are mainly methodologies. The exception is the Zachman framework which is a real framework and the progenitor of the term enterprise architecture.

To read more, register to this web site to download the article.

Created Date Sunday, 01 January 2012
Modified Date Tuesday, 03 July 2018
Filesize 104 Kilobytes

The Skeptical Architect - Architecture—Different Management Perspectives

The Skeptical Architect

By: Gil Laware & Frank Kowalkowski

Management perceives of architecture in many different ways. As skeptical architects, we believe architecture will not be successful and useful in business as long as the perception continues. Unfortunately, benefits and outcomes of efforts in enterprise-level architecture are difficult to show immediately. Since they are not obvious to senior management, those managers do not perceive its value. Hence, a different approach may be needed to change this perspective. In reality, enterprise architecture is fundamentally about the organization's structure.

The value to management is best described and realized by applying models in enterprise architecture to anticipate the impact of changes in business structure or to assess damage after rapid changes in the business environment occur that require rapid restructuring. Changes in the business environment such as competition, economic downturns, social changes and new technology can alter the enterprise structure, often dramatically. Enterprise architecture can help the enterprise respond to these changes. A set of interconnected architectures developed over time, as we described in our most recent article, is most useful for assessing changes.

To read more, register to this web site to download the article.

Created Date Sunday, 01 July 2012
Modified Date Tuesday, 03 July 2018
Filesize 288 Kilobytes

The Skeptical Architect - Architecture—Managing Business Transformation Actively

The Skeptical Architect

By: Gil Laware & Frank Kowalkowski

How many times have we heard management ask what value is there in all this architecture/blueprint stuff? What can you do for us in the next few months? We don’t have time for a two (2) year project? Are there any quick fixes or low hanging fruit that architecture can give me? Can you save me any money on this effort? Management perceives architecture in many different ways. In addition to the variety of perceptions, there is a lack of understanding where the value comes from when working with architectures.

A key value of architecture to business management is in support of business transformation. Let us be clear, we mean that business transformation as taking actions that organize people, process and technology to achieve significant change that aligns with the new or updated business strategies and goals (i.e., adopting a new business model). A practical example to show value is to select a typical management situation and demonstrate value to management not just describe what architecture is all about or just document the structure of the enterprise.

To read more, register to this web site to download the article.

Created Date Saturday, 01 October 2011
Modified Date Tuesday, 03 July 2018
Filesize 239 Kilobytes

The Skeptical Architect - Dynamic business environments, static IT architectures create constant battle

The Skeptical Architect

By: Gil Laware & Frank Kowalkowski

In the August article, we indicated that enterprises have multiple layers of architectures that form a suite of architectures. Maintaining alignment of the layers has always been a problem that the number of articles, seminars and discussions about IT alignment in business attest.

There are several reasons for the IT alignment problem. Consider the Zachman Framework approach, for example, using successive transformation of views of the information systems architecture. If the technology in row 4 is changed, it impacts the design, or the system logic in row 3 above, (see diagram below). If the business changes, then the design represented by row 3 is impacted by the business changes. This is known as the “row 3 squeeze” so design is impacted from two directions. Change is most likely from the business side as the organization reacts to changes in the business environment.

To read more, register to this web site to download the article.

Created Date Monday, 01 April 2013
Modified Date Tuesday, 03 July 2018
Filesize 49 Kilobytes

The Skeptical Architect - The Business is at Risk – Architecture to the Rescue

The Skeptical Architect

By: Gil Laware & Frank Kowalkowski

Business architecture focuses on the opportunity and capabilities of the organization. They are the driving forces behind a business’ strategy to do a merger, an acquisition, a divestiture, drive IT alignment, improve business processes or engage in an outsourcing activity. Certainly, various architectures are contextually implicit within the business and that of an anticipated strategy. Thus, the families of architectures (Enterprise IT Architecture, Business Architecture, and Strategic Business Architecture) that we discussed in our last article are part of the anticipated strategy and should be made “explicit”.

In Price Waterhouse Cooper’s (PwC) 16th Annual CEO Global Survey1, the CEO’s who participated in the survey cited the following areas of concern: seek growth in U.S. markets, see consolidation and acquisition key activities, anticipate wide fluctuations in economic conditions due to governmental actions, build more resilient businesses to mitigate various risk scenarios, navigate the uncertain tax and regulatory actions, continue to reduce costs at an operational level, address the talent shortage that is anticipated for future, understand the customer’s needs better for growth, invest in more secure natural and energy resources, utilizing social media ethically to build better customer relationships, and mitigating cyber-security attacks on networks.

To read more, register to this web site to download the article.

Created Date Tuesday, 01 April 2014
Modified Date Tuesday, 03 July 2018
Filesize 116 Kilobytes

The Skeptical Architect - Using Architecture for Business Improvement

The Skeptical Architect

By: Gil Laware & Frank Kowalkowski

Why apply Analytics to an Architectural Framework There is a significant difference in architecture perspectives and analysis approach one uses for business improvement. Is it the structure the enterprise described by the architecture or the enterprise content maintained by that architecture?

There are a couple of points about applying analytics when using an architectural framework. While you can use a number of architectural frameworks for analysis, we favor the Zachman approach. Our previous articles have distinguished a number of differences in architecture approaches. However, there are two critical points that favor the Zachman approach. One point is that you can take advantage of Zachman’s ontological structure to convert artifacts from other frameworks into the Zachman framework1. The other point is that executives need various analytics to evaluate various architectural solutions that are better fits for the organization. Analytics are easier and more meaningful with the Zachman framework as the underlying organization of architecture components. By having the facts maintained in, and integrated into one place - the Zachman Framework provides the opportunity to apply analytics for discovery, diagnostic, prescriptive and predictive analysis using the architecture itself!

To read more, register to this web site to download the article.